getMethod() arguments to add components

If I have two variables:

Object obj; String methodName = "getName"; 

Without knowing the class of obj, how can I call the method identified by methodName on it?

The method being called has no parameters, and a String return value. It's a getter for a Java bean.

Replay

Coding from the hip, it would be something like:

java.lang.reflect.Method method;
try {
  method = obj.getClass().getMethod(methodName, param1.class, param2.class, ..);
} catch (SecurityException e) {
  // exception handling omitted for brevity
} catch (NoSuchMethodException e) {
  // exception handling omitted for brevity
}

The parameters identify the very specific method you need (if there are several overloaded available, if the method has no arguments, only give methodName).

Then you invoke that method by calling

try {
  method.invoke(obj, arg1, arg2,...);
} catch (IllegalArgumentException e) { // exception handling omitted for brevity
} catch (IllegalAccessException e) { // exception handling omitted for brevity
} catch (InvocationTargetException e) { // exception handling omitted for brevity

Again, leave out the arguments in .invoke, if you don't have any. But yeah. Read about Java Reflection

Use reflection:

http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/reflect/member/methodInvocation.html

Class<?> c = Class.forName("class name");
Method  method = c.getDeclaredMethod ("method name", parameterTypes)
method.invoke (objectToInvokeOn, params)

Where:

"class name" is the name of the class

objectToInvokeOn is of type Object and is the object you want to invoke the method on "method name" is the name of the method you want to call

parameterTypes is of type Class [] and decalres the parameters the method takes

params is of type Object [] and declares the parameters to be passed to the method

The method can be invoked like this. There are also more possibilities (check the reflection api), but this is the simplest one:

import java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException;
import java.lang.reflect.Method;

import org.junit.Assert;
import org.junit.Test;

public class ReflectionTest {

    private String methodName = "length";
    private String valueObject = "Some object";

    @Test
    public void testGetMethod() throws SecurityException, NoSuchMethodException, IllegalArgumentException,
            IllegalAccessException, InvocationTargetException {
        Method m = valueObject.getClass().getMethod(methodName, new Class[] {});
        Object ret = m.invoke(valueObject, new Object[] {});
        Assert.assertEquals(11, ret);
    }

}

First, don't. Avoid this sort of code. It tends to be really bad code and insecure too (see section 6 of Secure Coding Guidelines for the Java Programming Language, version 2.0).

If you must do it, prefer java.beans to reflection. Beans wraps reflection allowing relatively safe and conventional access.

To complete my colleague's answers, You might want to pay close attention to:

  • static or instance calls (in one case, you do not need an instance of the class, in the other, you might need to rely on an existing default constructor that may or may not be there)
  • public or non-public method call (for the latter,you need to call setAccessible on the method within an doPrivileged block, other findbugs won't be happy)
  • encapsulating into one more manageable applicative exception if you want to throw back the numerous java system exceptions (hence the CCException in the code below)

Here is an old java1.4 code which takes into account those points:

/**
 * Allow for instance call, avoiding certain class circular dependencies. <br />
 * Calls even private method if java Security allows it.
 * @param aninstance instance on which method is invoked (if null, static call)
 * @param classname name of the class containing the method
 * (can be null - ignored, actually - if instance if provided, must be provided if static call)
 * @param amethodname name of the method to invoke
 * @param parameterTypes array of Classes
 * @param parameters array of Object
 * @return resulting Object
 * @throws CCException if any problem
 */
public static Object reflectionCall(final Object aninstance, final String classname, final String amethodname, final Class[] parameterTypes, final Object[] parameters) throws CCException
{
    Object res;// = null;
    try {
        Class aclass;// = null;
        if(aninstance == null)
        {
            aclass = Class.forName(classname);
        }
        else
        {
            aclass = aninstance.getClass();
        }
        //Class[] parameterTypes = new Class[]{String[].class};
    final Method amethod = aclass.getDeclaredMethod(amethodname, parameterTypes);
        AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction() {
    public Object run() {
                amethod.setAccessible(true);
                return null; // nothing to return
            }
        });
        res = amethod.invoke(aninstance, parameters);
    } catch (final ClassNotFoundException e) {
        throw new CCException.Error(PROBLEM_TO_ACCESS+classname+CLASS, e);
    } catch (final SecurityException e) {
        throw new CCException.Error(PROBLEM_TO_ACCESS+classname+GenericConstants.HASH_DIESE+ amethodname + METHOD_SECURITY_ISSUE, e);
    } catch (final NoSuchMethodException e) {
        throw new CCException.Error(PROBLEM_TO_ACCESS+classname+GenericConstants.HASH_DIESE+ amethodname + METHOD_NOT_FOUND, e);
    } catch (final IllegalArgumentException e) {
        throw new CCException.Error(PROBLEM_TO_ACCESS+classname+GenericConstants.HASH_DIESE+ amethodname + METHOD_ILLEGAL_ARGUMENTS+String.valueOf(parameters)+GenericConstants.CLOSING_ROUND_BRACKET, e);
    } catch (final IllegalAccessException e) {
        throw new CCException.Error(PROBLEM_TO_ACCESS+classname+GenericConstants.HASH_DIESE+ amethodname + METHOD_ACCESS_RESTRICTION, e);
    } catch (final InvocationTargetException e) {
    throw new CCException.Error(PROBLEM_TO_ACCESS+classname+GenericConstants.HASH_DIESE+ amethodname + METHOD_INVOCATION_ISSUE, e);
    }
    return res;
}

//Step1 - Using string funClass to convert to class
String funClass = "package.myclass";
Class c = Class.forName(funClass);

//Step2 - instantiate an object of the class abov
Object o = c.newInstance();
//Prepare array of the arguments that your function accepts, lets say only one string here
Class[] paramTypes = new Class[1];
paramTypes[0]=String.class;
String methodName = "mymethod";
//Instantiate an object of type method that returns you method name
 Method m = c.getDeclaredMethod(methodName, paramTypes);
//invoke method with actual params
m.invoke(o, "testparam");

Object obj;

Method method = obj.getClass().getMethod("methodName", null);

method.invoke(obj, null);

For those who want a straight-forward code example in Java 7:

Dog class:

package com.mypackage.bean;

public class Dog {
    private String name;
    private int age;

    public Dog() {
        // empty constructor
    }

    public Dog(String name, int age) {
        this.name = name;
        this.age = age;
    }

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    public int getAge() {
        return age;
    }

    public void setAge(int age) {
        this.age = age;
    }

    public void printDog(String name, int age) {
        System.out.println(name + " is " + age + " year(s) old.");
    }
}

ReflectionDemo class:

package com.mypackage.demo;

import java.lang.reflect.*;

public class ReflectionDemo {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        String dogClassName = "com.mypackage.bean.Dog";
        Class<?> dogClass = Class.forName(dogClassName); // convert string classname to class
        Object dog = dogClass.newInstance(); // invoke empty constructor

        String methodName = "";

        // with single parameter, return void
        methodName = "setName";
        Method setNameMethod = dog.getClass().getMethod(methodName, String.class);
        setNameMethod.invoke(dog, "Mishka"); // pass arg

        // without parameters, return string
        methodName = "getName";
        Method getNameMethod = dog.getClass().getMethod(methodName);
        String name = (String) getNameMethod.invoke(dog); // explicit cast

        // with multiple parameters
        methodName = "printDog";
        Class<?>[] paramTypes = {String.class, int.class};
        Method printDogMethod = dog.getClass().getMethod(methodName, paramTypes);
        printDogMethod.invoke(dog, name, 3); // pass args
    }
}

Output: Mishka is 3 year(s) old.



You can invoke the constructor with parameters this way:

Constructor<?> dogConstructor = dogClass.getConstructor(String.class, int.class);
Object dog = dogConstructor.newInstance("Hachiko", 10);

Alternatively, you can remove

String dogClassName = "com.mypackage.bean.Dog";
Class<?> dogClass = Class.forName(dogClassName);
Object dog = dogClass.newInstance();

and do

Dog dog = new Dog();

Method method = Dog.class.getMethod(methodName, ...);
method.invoke(dog, ...);

Suggested reading: Creating New Class Instances

This sounds like something that is doable with the Java Reflection package.

http://java.sun.com/developer/technicalArticles/ALT/Reflection/index.html

Particularly under Invoking Methods by Name:

import java.lang.reflect.*;

public class method2 {
  public int add(int a, int b)
  {
     return a + b;
  }

  public static void main(String args[])
  {
     try {
       Class cls = Class.forName("method2");
       Class partypes[] = new Class[2];
        partypes[0] = Integer.TYPE;
        partypes[1] = Integer.TYPE;
        Method meth = cls.getMethod(
          "add", partypes);
        method2 methobj = new method2();
        Object arglist[] = new Object[2];
        arglist[0] = new Integer(37);
        arglist[1] = new Integer(47);
        Object retobj
          = meth.invoke(methobj, arglist);
        Integer retval = (Integer)retobj;
        System.out.println(retval.intValue());
     }
     catch (Throwable e) {
        System.err.println(e);
     }
  }
}

There is an Eclipse Plugin that you can use to generate private method invocation. So you don't need to code formal arguments and actual arguments every time you need to invoke a private method (an usual scenario in unit testing).

http://code.google.com/p/hexacta-booster/

You should use reflection - init a class object, then a method in this class, and then invoke this method on an object with optional parameters. Remember to wrap the following snippet in try-catch block

Hope it helps!

Class<?> aClass = Class.forName(FULLY_QUALIFIED_CLASS_NAME);
Method method = aClass.getMethod(methodName, YOUR_PARAM_1.class, YOUR_PARAM_2.class);
method.invoke(OBJECT_TO_RUN_METHOD_ON, YOUR_PARAM_1, YOUR_PARAM_2);

I have written like this it is working fine for me :

public class MethodInvokerClass {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws NoSuchMethodException, SecurityException, IllegalAccessException, IllegalArgumentException, ClassNotFoundException, InvocationTargetException, InstantiationException {
        Class c = Class.forName(MethodInvokerClass.class.getName());
        Object o = c.newInstance();
        Class[] paramTypes = new Class[1];
        paramTypes[0]=String.class;
        String methodName = "countWord";
         Method m = c.getDeclaredMethod(methodName, paramTypes);
         m.invoke(o, "testparam");
}
public void countWord(String input){
    System.out.println("My input "+input);
}

}

Out put : My input testparam

I am able to invoke method by passing name of it to other method like main.

for me a pretty simple and fool proof way would be to simply make a method caller method like so:

public static object methodCaller(String methodName)
{
    if(methodName.equals("getName"))
        return className.getName();
}

then when you need to call the method simply put something like this

//calling a toString method is unnessary here, but i use it to have my programs to both rigid and self-explanitory
System.out.println(methodCaller(methodName).toString());

Category: java Time: 2008-10-02 Views: 0

Related post

iOS development

Android development

Python development

JAVA development

Development language

PHP development

Ruby development

search

Front-end development

Database

development tools

Open Platform

Javascript development

.NET development

cloud computing

server

Copyright (C) avrocks.com, All Rights Reserved.

processed in 0.120 (s). 12 q(s)