Use of undeclared identifier itoa

itoa() is a really handy function to convert a number to a string. Linux does not seem to have itoa(), is there an equivalent function or do I have to use sprintf(str, "%d", num)?

Replay

EDIT: Sorry, I should have remembered that this machine is decidedly non-standard, having plugged in various non-standard libc implementations for academic purposes ;-)

As itoa() is indeed non-standard, as mentioned by several helpful commenters, it is best to use sprintf(target_string,"%d",source_int) or (better yet, because it's safe from buffer overflows) snprintf(target_string, size_of_target_string_in_bytes, "%d", source_int). I know it's not quite as concise or cool as itoa(), but at least you can Write Once, Run Everywhere (tm) ;-)

Here's the old (edited) answer

You are correct in stating that the default gcc libc does not include itoa(), like several other platforms, due to it not technically being a part of the standard. See here for a little more info. Note that you have to

#include <stdlib.h>

Of course you already know this, because you wanted to use itoa() on Linux after presumably using it on another platform, but... the code (stolen from the link above) would look like:

Example

/* itoa example */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int main ()
{
  int i;
  char buffer [33];
  printf ("Enter a number: ");
  scanf ("%d",&i);
  itoa (i,buffer,10);
  printf ("decimal: %s\n",buffer);
  itoa (i,buffer,16);
  printf ("hexadecimal: %s\n",buffer);
  itoa (i,buffer,2);
  printf ("binary: %s\n",buffer);
  return 0;
}

Output:

Enter a number: 1750
decimal: 1750
hexadecimal: 6d6
binary: 11011010110

Hope this helps!

If you are calling it a lot, the advice of "just use snprintf" can be annoying. So here's what you probably want:

const char *my_itoa_buf(char *buf, size_t len, int num)
{
  static char loc_buf[sizeof(int) * CHAR_BITS]; /* not thread safe */

  if (!buf)
  {
    buf = loc_buf;
    len = sizeof(loc_buf);
  }

  if (snprintf(buf, len, "%d", num) == -1)
    return ""; /* or whatever */

  return buf;
}

const char *my_itoa(int num)
{ return my_itoa_buf(NULL, 0, num); }

Edit: I just found out about std::to_string which is identical in operation to my own function below. It was introduced in C++11 and is available in recent versions of gcc, at least as early as 4.5 if you enable the c++0x extensions.


Not only is itoa missing from gcc, it's not the handiest function to use since you need to feed it a buffer. I needed something that could be used in an expression so I came up with this:

std::string itos(int n)
{
   const int max_size = std::numeric_limits<int>::digits10 + 1 /*sign*/ + 1 /*0-terminator*/;
   char buffer[max_size] = {0};
   sprintf(buffer, "%d", n);
   return std::string(buffer);
}

Ordinarily it would be safer to use snprintf instead of sprintf but the buffer is carefully sized to be immune to overrun.

See an example: http://ideone.com/mKmZVE

As Matt J wrote, there is itoa, but it's not standard. Your code will be more portable if you use snprintf.

Following function allocates just enough memory to keep string representation of the given number and then writes the string representation into this area using standard sprintf method.

char *itoa(long n)
{
    int len = n==0 ? 1 : floor(log10l(labs(n)))+1;
    if (n<0) len++; // room for negative sign '-'

    char    *buf = calloc(sizeof(char), len+1); // +1 for null
    snprintf(buf, len+1, "%ld", n);
    return   buf;
}

Don't forget to free up allocated memory when out of need:

char *num_str = itoa(123456789L);
// ...
free(num_str);

N.B. As snprintf copies n-1 bytes, we have to call snprintf(buf, len+1, "%ld", n) (not just snprintf(buf, len, "%ld", n))

I have used _itoa(...) on RedHat 6 and GCC compiler. It works.

direct copy to buffer : 64 bit integer itoa hex :

    char* itoah(long num, char* s, int len)
    {
            long n, m = 16;
            int i = 16+2;
            int shift = 'a'- ('9'+1);

            if(!s || len < 1)
                    return 0;

            n = num < 0 ? -1 : 1;
            n = n * num;

            len = len > i ? i : len;
            i = len < i ? len : i;

            s[i-1] = 0;
            i--;

            if(!num)
            {
                    if(len < 2)
                            return &s[i];

                    s[i-1]='0';
                    return &s[i-1];
            }

            while(i && n)
            {
                    s[i-1] = n % m + '0';

                    if (s[i-1] > '9')
                            s[i-1] += shift ;

                    n = n/m;
                    i--;
            }

            if(num < 0)
            {
                    if(i)
                    {
                            s[i-1] = '-';
                            i--;
                    }
            }

            return &s[i];
    }

note: change long to long long for 32 bit machine. long to int in case for 32 bit integer. m is the radix. When decreasing radix, increase number of characters (variable i). When increasing radix, decrease number of characters (better). In case of unsigned data type, i just becomes 16 + 1.

Here is a much improved version of Archana's solution. It works for any radix 1-16, and numbers <= 0, and it shouldn't clobber memory.

static char _numberSystem[] = "0123456789ABCDEF";
static char _twosComp[] = "FEDCBA9876543210";

static void safestrrev(char *buffer, const int bufferSize, const int strlen)
{
    int len = strlen;
    if (len > bufferSize)
    {
        len = bufferSize;
    }
    for (int index = 0; index < (len / 2); index++)
    {
        char ch = buffer[index];
        buffer[index] = buffer[len - index - 1];
        buffer[len - index - 1] = ch;
    }
}

static int negateBuffer(char *buffer, const int bufferSize, const int strlen, const int radix)
{
    int len = strlen;
    if (len > bufferSize)
    {
        len = bufferSize;
    }
    if (radix == 10)
    {
        if (len < (bufferSize - 1))
        {
            buffer[len++] = '-';
            buffer[len] = '\0';
        }
    }
    else
    {
        int twosCompIndex = 0;
        for (int index = 0; index < len; index++)
        {
            if ((buffer[index] >= '0') && (buffer[index] <= '9'))
            {
                twosCompIndex = buffer[index] - '0';
            }
            else if ((buffer[index] >= 'A') && (buffer[index] <= 'F'))
            {
                twosCompIndex = buffer[index] - 'A' + 10;
            }
            else if ((buffer[index] >= 'a') && (buffer[index] <= 'f'))
            {
                twosCompIndex = buffer[index] - 'a' + 10;
            }
            twosCompIndex += (16 - radix);
            buffer[index] = _twosComp[twosCompIndex];
        }
        if (len < (bufferSize - 1))
        {
            buffer[len++] = _numberSystem[radix - 1];
            buffer[len] = 0;
        }
    }
    return len;
}

static int twosNegation(const int x, const int radix)
{
    int n = x;
    if (x < 0)
    {
        if (radix == 10)
        {
            n = -x;
        }
        else
        {
            n = ~x;
        }
    }
    return n;
}

static char *safeitoa(const int x, char *buffer, const int bufferSize, const int radix)
{
    int strlen = 0;
    int n = twosNegation(x, radix);
    int nuberSystemIndex = 0;

    if (radix <= 16)
    {
        do
        {
            if (strlen < (bufferSize - 1))
            {
                nuberSystemIndex = (n % radix);
                buffer[strlen++] = _numberSystem[nuberSystemIndex];
                buffer[strlen] = '\0';
                n = n / radix;
            }
            else
            {
                break;
            }
        } while (n != 0);
        if (x < 0)
        {
            strlen = negateBuffer(buffer, bufferSize, strlen, radix);
        }
        safestrrev(buffer, bufferSize, strlen);
        return buffer;
    }
    return NULL;
}

i tried my own implementation of itoa(), it seem's work in binary, octal, decimal and hex

#define INT_LEN (10)
#define HEX_LEN (8)
#define BIN_LEN (32)
#define OCT_LEN (11)

static char *  my_itoa ( int value, char * str, int base )
{
    int i,n =2,tmp;
    char buf[BIN_LEN+1];

    switch(base)
    {
        case 16:
            for(i = 0;i<HEX_LEN;++i)
            {
                if(value/base>0)
                {
                    n++;
                }
            }
            snprintf(str, n, "%x" ,value);
            break;
        case 10:
            for(i = 0;i<INT_LEN;++i)
            {
                if(value/base>0)
                {
                    n++;
                }
            }
            snprintf(str, n, "%d" ,value);
            break;
        case 8:
            for(i = 0;i<OCT_LEN;++i)
            {
                if(value/base>0)
                {
                    n++;
                }
            }
            snprintf(str, n, "%o" ,value);
            break;
        case 2:
            for(i = 0,tmp = value;i<BIN_LEN;++i)
            {
                if(tmp/base>0)
                {
                    n++;
                }
                tmp/=base;
            }
            for(i = 1 ,tmp = value; i<n;++i)
            {
                if(tmp%2 != 0)
                {
                    buf[n-i-1] ='1';
                }
                else
                {
                    buf[n-i-1] ='0';
                }
                tmp/=base;
            }
            buf[n-1] = '\0';
            strcpy(str,buf);
            break;
        default:
            return NULL;
    }
    return str;
}

If you just want to print them:

void binary(unsigned int n)
{
    for(int shift=sizeof(int)*8-1;shift>=0;shift--)
    {
       if (n >> shift & 1)
         printf("1");
       else
         printf("0");

    }
    printf("\n");
}

itoa is not non-standard C function. You can implement your own. It was appeared in the first edition of Kernighan and Ritchie's The C Programming Language, on page 60. The second edition of The C Programming Language ("K&R2") contains the following implementation of itoa, on page 64. The book notes several issues with this implementation, including the fact that it does not correctly handle the most negative number

 /* itoa:  convert n to characters in s */
 void itoa(int n, char s[])
 {
     int i, sign;

     if ((sign = n) < 0)  /* record sign */
         n = -n;          /* make n positive */
     i = 0;
     do {       /* generate digits in reverse order */
         s[i++] = n % 10 + '0';   /* get next digit */
     } while ((n /= 10) > 0);     /* delete it */
     if (sign < 0)
         s[i++] = '-';
     s[i] = '\0';
     reverse(s);
}

The function reverse used above is implemented two pages earlier:

 #include <string.h>

 /* reverse:  reverse string s in place */
 void reverse(char s[])
 {
     int i, j;
     char c;

     for (i = 0, j = strlen(s)-1; i<j; i++, j--) {
         c = s[i];
         s[i] = s[j];
         s[j] = c;
     }
}

Late to the itoa() party.

As itoa() is not standard in C, various versions with various function signatures exists. So best to not use the name itoa.

Below is a version that does not have trouble with INT_MIN and handles problem buffers (NULL or too small) returning NULL.

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <string.h>

// Buffer size for a decimal string of a signed integer, 10/33 > log10(2)
#define SIGNED_PRINT_SIZE(object)  (sizeof(object) * CHAR_BIT * 10 / 33 + 3)

char *itoa_x(int number, char *dest, size_t dest_size) {
  if (dest == NULL) {
    return NULL;
  }

  char buf[SIGNED_PRINT_SIZE(number)];
  char *p = &buf[sizeof buf - 1];

  // Work with negative absolute value
  int neg_num = number < 0 ? number : -number;

  // Form string
  *p = '\0';
  do {
    *--p = (char) ('0' - neg_num % 10);
    neg_num /= 10;
  } while (neg_num);
  if (number < 0) {
    *--p = '-';
  }

  // Copy string
  size_t src_size = (size_t) (&buf[sizeof buf] - p);
  if (src_size > dest_size) {
    // Not enough room
    return NULL;
  }
  return memcpy(dest, p, src_size);
}

You can use this program instead of sprintf.

void itochar(int x, char *buffer, int radix);

int main()
{
    char buffer[10];
    itochar(725, buffer, 10);
    printf ("\n %s \n", buffer);
    return 0;
}

void itochar(int x, char *buffer, int radix)
{
    int i = 0 , n,s;
    n = s;
    while (n > 0)
    {
        s = n%radix;
        n = n/radix;
        buffer[i++] = '0' + s;
    }
    buffer[i] = '\0';
    strrev(buffer);
}

Category: c# Time: 2008-10-10 Views: 8
Tags: linux

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